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The Dirty Little Secret About Arctic Ice
#21
From GeoScienceWorld


Holocene fluctuations in Arctic sea-ice cover: dinocyst-based reconstructions for the eastern Chukchi Sea


Selected Excerpt:


Quote:The results of this study clearly show that sea-ice cover in the western Arctic Ocean has varied throughout the Holocene. More importantly, there have been times when sea-ice cover was less extensive than at the end of the 20th century.
It is our attitude toward free thought and free expression that will determine our fate. There must be no limit on the range of temperate discussion, no limits on thought. No subject must be taboo. No censor must preside at our assemblies.

–William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1952
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#22
Polar Bear Science

Polar bears barely survived the sea ice habitat changes of the last Ice Age, evidence suggests

April 21,2015

by Dr. Susan Crockford

Excerpt:

While the polar bear is an Ice Age species, genetic and fossil evidence suggests it barely survived the profound sea ice changes associated with the Last Glacial Maximum, one of the most severe glacial periods of the Pleistocene.

A map of sea ice extent at the climax of the Last Glacial Maximum (both perennial and seasonal ice), prepared with the help of a colleague, makes it possible to discuss what genetic and fossil evidence can tell us about the probable effects of glacial conditions on polar bears and ringed seals.

LINK
It is our attitude toward free thought and free expression that will determine our fate. There must be no limit on the range of temperate discussion, no limits on thought. No subject must be taboo. No censor must preside at our assemblies.

–William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1952
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#23
From Watts Up With That?

New study shows Arctic sea ice extent ~6000 years ago was much less than today

March 24,2014

Excerpt:

This is interesting, somehow the Earth managed to reduce a good portion of the Arctic Ice Cap during the Holocene Climate Optimum from approximately 10,000-6,000 years ago without the help of the industrial revolution, fossil fuels, or automobile emissions.

This new paper published in Quaternary Science Reviews finds Arctic sea ice extent and thickness was much less than present-day conditions and according to the authors,

LINK
It is our attitude toward free thought and free expression that will determine our fate. There must be no limit on the range of temperate discussion, no limits on thought. No subject must be taboo. No censor must preside at our assemblies.

–William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1952
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#24
Publication: American Geophysical Union

Ice free Arctic Ocean, an Early Holocene analogue.

Quote:Abstract

Extensive systems of wave generated beach ridges along the North Greenland coasts show that these areas once saw seasonally open water. In addition to beach ridges, large amounts of striated boulders in and on the marine sediments from the same period also indicate that the ocean was open enough for ice bergs to drift along the shore and drop their loads. Presently the North Greenland coastline is permanently beleaguered by pack ice, and ice bergs are very rare and locked up in the sea ice. Predictions of the rapidly decreasing sea ice in the Arctic Ocean generally point to this area as the last to become ice free in summer. We therefore suggest that the occurrence of wave generated shores and abundant ice berg dropped boulders indicate that the Arctic Ocean was nearly free of sea ice in the summer at the time when they were formed. The beach ridges occur as isostatically raised "staircases", and C14-dated curves for relative sea level change show that they were formed in the Early Holocene. A large set of samples of molluscs from beach ridges and marine sediments were collected in the summer of 2007, and are presently being dated to give a precise dating of the ice free interval. Preliminary results indicate that it fell within the interval from c. 8.5 to c. 6 ka - being progressively shorter from south to north. We therefore conclude that for a priod in the Early Holocene, probably for a millenium or more, the Arctic Ocean was free of sea ice at least for shorter periods in the summer. This may serve as an analogue to the predicted "greenhouse situation" expected to appear within our century.

LINK
It is our attitude toward free thought and free expression that will determine our fate. There must be no limit on the range of temperate discussion, no limits on thought. No subject must be taboo. No censor must preside at our assemblies.

–William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1952
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#25
More evidence of ice free Summers in the Arctic region.


Georgia before People


Seasonal Dissolution of the North Polar Ice Cap During the Early Holocene

January 31, 2016

EXCERPT:

Scientists drill cores in ocean sediment because this mud contains evidence of past climatic fluctuations.  Layers within these cores are radio-carbon dated, and the data gleaned between layers provides proxy evidence for the climatic conditions that occurred within different periods of time.  Scientists have recently drilled cores at various sites in the Arctic Ocean.  One site at Lomonosov Ridge yielded a 428 meter core, revealing a 56 million year record of Arctic Circle climate.

LINK
It is our attitude toward free thought and free expression that will determine our fate. There must be no limit on the range of temperate discussion, no limits on thought. No subject must be taboo. No censor must preside at our assemblies.

–William O. Douglas, U.S. Supreme Court Justice, 1952
Reply


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