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The Confusion and Deceipt of Climate Change
With all the dissent following the announcement by the USA President Mr Trump to withdraw from the Paris Climate Change Agreement, it’s timely to make some salient points to the non-biased followers of the climate change issue. Pronouncements by the world’s leading authority the IPCC – Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, may not be as accurate or as diligently honest as they profess to be.

There can be no doubt that the Earth is currently on a warming trend, but it’s far from being scientifically accepted across the board that it will continue unabated, or that human activity is to blame, or even that greenhouse gases including CO2 are the prime threat to human life as we know it.

Limiting the Scope of Temperature Predictions

Meteorology today is by no means a perfected science. That is not a critical reflection because the subject is so profoundly complex. But even with all the technology and information available today, meteorologists cannot always get it right.  There is a reason why you will not see weather forecasts usually no further than (say) a week ahead in the newspapers or broadcasts. There are just too many vagaries in the planet’s weather processes. Determination of near-future weather relies to some degree on what meteorological events can be observed today in real time, and outside of that it comes down to skilled deduction – read educated guesswork.
[Image: global-temps-to-2100-300x112.jpg]
Fig SPM.4 from AR5 – IPCC Fifth Assessment Report of 2014, Summary for Policymakers. It shows temperature rises around 2ºC to 3ºC for a low emission scenario by 2100, and temperatures up to 11.7ºC with a high emission scenario out to 2100.

So … if they can’t consistently get it right for a month or even two weeks ahead, then how are we to believe the IPCC when they give us such forbidding global temperature projections for (say) two or 12 or even 83 years from now?  Certainly they can put up what blinkered ardent followers and others who can’t think outside the box might consider a good case, but leaving aside the question of mankind’s activities for a moment there’s also the planet’s natural climate trends to consider – something the IPCC doesn’t seem to give a lot of thought to.

They do at least recognise it in AR5 which was their last report stating, “Climate change may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings such as modulations of the solar cycles, volcanic eruptions, and persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use.”  They also say there is “High Confidence” in the (existence of) uncertainties of interlinked human and natural systems. But then they go on to emphasis just the human aspects.
IPCC Summary for Policy Makers 2014

Dr Judith Curry is an eminent American climatologist and author who challenges the IPCC about their failings to address the “Uncertainty Monster” when projecting future climate trends. During an interview on 6th February 2017 she talks about how the IPCC processes have robbed (non IPCC aligned ) scientists opportunities to explore natural climate change. Among other points of interest she noted the failure of their climate models to address the pre-1950 natural climate variation saying, “If science can’t explain climate shifts pre 1950, how can we trust today’s climate models?” 
Read more:
WUWT – Dr. Judith Curry on climate science’s fatal flaw – the failure to explore and understand uncertainty.

Pros & Cons of Atmospheric CO2  Concentrations

[Image: sky-falling-300x277.jpg]
It’s highly likely one of the IPCC’s (and many of their advocates) officially unstated aims is to frighten us, the people of the world into agitating our respective governments to take action to reduce greenhouse emissions. That may sound like a true sceptic’s view but there’s plenty of evidence to suggest that “cause noblesse” i.e. delivering untruths for what they believe to be for the greater good, continues to happen. A classic case was Senator Al Gore with his, “An Inconvenient Truth” in his 2006 documentary.
Yet even if it isn’t, the wording in the Assessment Reports are getting more and more alarmist. Among many other claims they say CO2 levels are rising at a rapid rate.

Currently the content of CO2 in the atmosphere is 406 ppm – parts per million. According to the IPCC an excess of greenhouse gases created by mankind including CO2 has tripped a natural climate warming trend into a higher gear, thus making the planet approx 1ºC warmer since about 1850.  If the IPCC is correct then CO2 levels are projected to reach around 500 ppm by 2050 which would probably make the Earth an extra 1ºC to 2ºC warmer – albeit in particular places and especially at the poles.

One global warming supporter is Nicola Jones who is a freelance journalist with a background in Chemistry and Oceanography. In a refreshing argument for the global warmers, Jones explains why the content of future carbon in the atmosphere should be kept below 400 ppm in an article published 26th January 2017.  At face value and assuming what she says is factually correct then she makes some very good points, particularly in relation to ancient levels of CO2 and it’s relationship to temperatures at the time, that have been overlooked or ignored by climate deniers. 
Read more:
How the World Passed a Carbon Threshold and Why It Matters

On the other hand there’s Malcolm Roberts, a Senator elected in 2016 to represent the State of Queensland in Australia. The Senator was annoyed that because of poorly researched climate policies, people have lost jobs, paid higher taxes, wasted opportunities, lost businesses and fritted away scarce resources, and that billions of dollars had been wasted on mothballed white elephants such as useless desalination plants. In September 2016 the Senator challenged the Australian leading scientific organisation, the CSIRO to present its case on climate change.

Australia’s CSIRO is highly respected and it supports the global warming theory. The Senator’s findings with the assistance of two well known climate sceptics were that, “the CSIRO had no empirical evidence proving carbon dioxide from human activity affects climate, and that their presentation contradicted the empirical climate evidence”. Basically what they are saying is that the CSIRO is simply “rubber stamping” everything it’s being told about climate change without checking for themselves, and relying on theory and logic rather than proven facts.
Read more:
Senator Malcolm Roberts – On Climate, CSIRO Lacks Empirical Proof

Cherry Picking Temperature Records

Instrument Records

The earliest temperature measuring instruments didn’t appear until the 16th century but it wasn’t until 1714 that the first reliable thermometer using the Fahrenheit scale appeared. Not until 1860 was it thought there were enough observation sites around the world to begin measuring global temperatures.

Unfortunately the IPCC only uses instrumental records back to 1850. This gives them a mere 167 years of meteorological data out of a climate scale of tens of thousands of years to prove their theory of AGW – Anthropogenic Global Warming.

By over-emphasising the trivially short instrument record, and greatly under-emphasising the varied changes that exist in geological records … the IPCC signals its failure to comprehend that climate change is as much a geological phenomenon as it is a meteorological one.
Prof. Robert M Carter – Climate: The Counter Consensus, 2010

Geological Proxy Data Ignored

Scientists have been able to study the ancient history of the Earth’s climate using geological data aka proxy data e.g. tree rings, ice-cores, lake and ocean sediment, tree and fossil pollens.

Written human records are also used. Paleoclimatologists are skilled scientists who work on the climate of past ages using proxy data such as historical records, journals and diaries, newspaper reports, ship’s logs, farm yields and so on.
Read more:
IEDRO – Paleo Proxy Data: What Is It?

[Image: error-bars-300x234.jpg]
The grey shaded areas indicate the range of uncertainty above and below the solid black line representing the annual calculated temperatures back to about 1760. Note how the range of uncertainty gets narrower with the gradual introduction of new technologies such as thermometers, weather balloons and satellites over time.

Proxy data however is not entirely accurate. They leave large “error bars” or “percentages of uncertainty” which basically comes down to skilled but highly educated guesses. At worst, such proxy data at least provides a starting point towards what the climate was at a given time e.g. warm or cold, warming or cooling, the rate of the warming or cooling and so on.

Weather and climate are both driven by the same processes and there is no real point in time where one can separate them. Both are driven basically by the movement of heat between the land, oceans and atmosphere and it happens in time frames that can run from seconds to millions of years. As well, there are many other physical, chemical and biological processes also happening which affect the planet to a more or lesser degree.

So at what point can we measure climate as opposed to weather?

Misuse of Climate Measurements

People generally accept the word “normal” to mean what is usual. Therefore the term Climate Normal would ordinarily be considered to mean what might be expected or is usual.  But in meteorology it means an average measurement of weather conditions that have actually occurred over a particular period.

In 1935 the WMO – World Meteorological Organization’s conference in Warsaw agreed on a “Standard Normal” aka Climate Normal system  by which climate could be measured over time. The basic idea was to have a benchmark against which past, recent, current or future meteorological conditions could be measured, and to provide a historic context to them e.g. to an recent extreme weather event.
Climate Normals are produced at local, national and global levels and they represent a 30-year average of meteorological data. This period was decided because statisticians believe 30 numbers gives them a reliable mean or average, but it’s not compulsory.  Each Climate Normal is assigned one data point which might be used (say) for plotting temperatures on a graph.  Each data point is calculated as an arithmetic average for the 30-year period being analysed.  The first Climate Normal was set for 1901-30, followed by 1931-60 then 1961-90. The WMO will not analyse the currently running Climate Normal until the end of 2020. Records prior to 1900 are not generally considered to be reliable.
Read more:
WMO – The Role of Climatological Normals in a Changing Climate.

In 2011 the WMO introduced a second tier of Climate Normals ostensibly to account for the “rapid pace of climate change” which provides for measurements of current temperatures.  The new tier retains the 30-year period but is updated every 10 years instead of 30 years e.g. 1961-90, 1971-2000 and 1981-2010 (which is the current baseline period) used by the WMO.
Read more: WMO – New Two-Tier approach on “climate normals”.

Changing the Message

Some scientists have calculated 30-year and 20-year climate normals by going back to 1850 which gives them even more data points. However there are those who believe the early temperature records should not be used. Among other concerns there is no real guarantee that temperature readings were always observed under similar conditions, or that some temperature extremes may have been recorded pre-1910 using non-standard equipment and that they could be location specific, or that other warmer or cooler data may not even have been entered into the database.

To confuse the issue even further there are other systems of measuring temperature being used. “Period Averages” allows analysis of a minimum period of 10 years and 20 year graphs are fairly common. “Normals” are used for any period as long as it’s three consecutive 10-year periods. Another is the “Hinge Fit” used by the NOAA -National Centers for Environmental Information.  On top of everything, the use of the terms “climate normal” and “normal” are often misused by people who don’t fully understand them.

Using the Tier 2 Climate Normal and other systems can no doubt be justified, but they can have unfortunate side effects. They can cause confusion for non-scientists and lend themselves to bias or flat out deception. The following highlights one common type of deception used by the IPCC.

Below:  Typical Climate Normal graph showing “anomalies”
i.e. departures in degrees either above or below the
mean temperature average for a selected period.

[Image: global-temps-160-years.jpg] 
Approx 160 year graph from around  1880 to 2007 showing anomalies up to 0.7ºC below the average before about 1980, and up to 0.8ºC above the average by about 2010.    This is typical of an IPCC graph with no historic context provided.
Graphs like these are commonly used to demonstrate an “unprecedented” temperature spike in the late 20th century.
[Image: 2000-yr-temps.jpg]
2000 year graph providing historic context to the late 20th century temperature spike.    It shows a warmer period during the MWP – Medieval Warm Period at almost 0.6ºC above the mean average followed by the LIA – Little Ice Age during the 1600s.    This was followed by rising temperatures to about 0.4ºC by year 2000. At that time the temperature was believed to have been cooler than during the MWP by the researchers.
Graphs showing temperature rises in historic context do not look quite so alarming.

Note that the difference between the size of the anomalies between the first and second graph is due to the selection of different Climate Normal to use as a baseline. It’s a common enough practice by those with lesser integrity.
Of course there are other ways to misrepresent Climate Normal (anomaly) type data on graphs. For instance once might select a different baseline period that has a hotter or cooler mean average temperature thus making the anomalies higher (warmer) or lower (cooler) on a graph. 

Jo Nova is an Australian  Bachelor of Science, author and blogger on the science, funding and politics of climate change. For three years she was an Associate Lecturer on Science Communication at the Australian National University. In a light-hearted manner she discusses some of the methods that are actually used to misrepresent climate change.
Read more: Jo Nova – How to make climate graphs look scary — a reply to XKCD

[Image: the-pause-consensus-300x191.jpg]
In recent years there has been much brouhaha in the USA about a perceived global warming pause and even a possible cooling trend. It’s not surprising then that some presenters have probably been cherry-picking the data and building anomaly graphs to prove their case.

What it all boils down to is that deception abounds and non-scientists should be careful of any presenter today who shows a temperature graph purporting to prove excessive warming or cooling.

As we’ve seen, climate changes occur naturally in time intervals of thousands of years. And despite claims by climate warming advocates that the late 20th century warming spike is unprecedented, non-aligned IPCC scientists have shown by using geological proxy data, temperatures similar to those recorded at the end of the 20th century have occurred since the emergence of mankind or at least very near to it.

[Image: CET-1772-2017-300x201.jpg]
One example is the CET – Central England Temperature. This is considered to be a reliable source of regional data for Central England.  Many believe it is also a reliable proxy dataset for analysing past climate in Europe and also the North Atlantic. The CET shows at least two warming spikes over just a few years since around 1820. Both were of shorter duration to the one which occurred at the end of the 1900s. Yet the people in that region have flourished apparently without the calamitous climatic events which the IPCC is predicting about to happen to us.
Read more:
Met Office Hadley Centre – CET (HadCET) Dataset

Bill Whittle is an American conservative blogger who, among other things discusses climate change issues.  In this short video he discusses several of the issues mentioned here about how we are being deceived by only getting part of the story, whether the sciences is real, plus some other issues not known about by this writer:
Watch video: Bill Nye – The Science Lie

Unfortunately, due to message length constraints this thread has had to be cut.

To read the remainder of this article please visit:   Issues on Climate Change

Russ Swan
Issues on Climate Change

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